Music industry

Live Nation is a former subsidiary of iHeartMedia Inc , which is the largest owner of radio stations in the United States.


For example, in the case of work for hire , the composition is owned immediately by another party. Traditionally, the copyright owner licenses or "assigns" some of their rights to publishing companies , by means of a publishing contract. The publishing company or a collection society operating on behalf of many such publishers, songwriters and composers collects fees known as " publishing royalties " when the composition is used.

A portion of the royalties are paid by the publishing company to the copyright owner, depending on the terms of the contract. Sheet music provides an income stream that is paid exclusively to the composers and their publishing company. Typically although not universally , the publishing company will provide the owner with an advance against future earnings when the publishing contract is signed. A publishing company will also promote the compositions, such as by acquiring song "placements" on television or in films.

Recordings are created by recording artists , which includes singers , musicians including session musicians and musical ensembles e. They were traditionally made in recording studios which are rented for a daily or hourly rate in a recording session. In the 21st century, advances in digital recording technology have allowed many producers and artists to create " home studios " using high-end computers and digital recording programs like Protools , bypassing the traditional role of the commercial recording studio.

The record producer oversees all aspects of the recording, making many of the logistic, financial and artistic decisions in cooperation with the artists. Audio engineers including recording , mixing and mastering engineers are responsible for ensuring good audio quality during the recording. They select and set up microphones and use effects units and mixing consoles to adjust the sound and level of the music.

A recording session may also require the services of an arranger , orchestrator , studio musicians , session musicians , vocal coaches , or even a discreetly-hired ghostwriter to help with the lyrics or songwriting. Recordings are traditionally owned by record companies. Some artists own their own record companies e.

A recording contract specifies the business relationship between a recording artist and the record company. In a traditional contract, the company provides an advance to the artist who agrees to record music that will be owned by the company. The company pays for the recording costs and the cost of promoting and marketing the record. For physical media such as CDs , the company also pays to manufacture and distribute the physical recordings.

Smaller record companies known as " indies " will form business relationships with other companies to handle many of these tasks. The record company pays the recording artist a portion of the income from the sale of the recordings, also known as a "royalty", but this is distinct from the publishing royalties described above. This portion is similar to a percentage, but may be limited or expanded by a number of factors such as free goods, recoupable expenses, bonuses, etc.

Session musicians and orchestra members as well as a few recording artists in special markets are under contract to provide work for hire ; they are typically only paid one-time fees or regular wages for their services, rather than ongoing royalties. Physical media such as CDs or vinyl records are sold by music retailers and are owned by the consumers after they buy them.

Buyers do not typically have the right to make digital copies from CDs or other media they buy, or rent or lease the CDs, because they do not own the recording on the CD, they only own the individual physical CD. A music distributor delivers crates of the packaged physical media from the manufacturer to the retailer and maintains commercial relationships with retailers and record companies.

The music retailer pays the distributor, who in turn pays the record company for the recordings. The record company pays mechanical royalties to the publisher and composer via a collection society. The record company then pays royalties, if contractually obligated, to the recording artist. In the case of digital downloads or online streaming of music, there is no physical media other than the consumer's computer memory on his or her portable media player or laptop.

For this reason, artists such as Taylor Swift, Paul McCartney, Kings of Leon, and others have called for legal changes that would deny social media the right to stream their music without paying them royalties.

Large online shops may pay the labels directly, but digital distributors do exist to provide distribution services for vendors large and small. When purchasing digital downloads or listening to music streaming, the consumer may be required to agree to record company and vendor licensing terms beyond those which are inherent in copyright ; for example, some services may allow consumers to freely share the recording, but others may restrict the user to storing the music on a specific number of hard drives or devices.

This royalty is typically much smaller than publishing or mechanical royalties. Within the past decade, more than "15 to 30 percent" of tracks on streaming services are unidentified with a specific artist. Jeff Price says "Audiam, an online music streaming service, has made over several hundred thousand dollars in the past year from collecting royalties from online streaming. Because of the overuse of YouTube and offline streaming, album sales have fallen by 60 percent in the past few years.

In the s, online subscription services such as Rhapsody also provide an income stream directly to record companies, and through them, to artists, contracts permitting.

A promoter brings together a performing artist and a venue owner and arranges contracts. A booking agency represents the artist to promoters, makes deals and books performances.

Consumers usually buy tickets either from the venue or from a ticket distribution service such as Ticketmaster. In the US, Live Nation is the dominant company in all of these roles: Choices about where and when to tour are decided by the artist's management and the artist, sometimes in consultation with the record company. Record companies may finance a tour in the hopes that it will help promote the sale of recordings. However, in the 21st century, it has become more common to release recordings to promote ticket sales for live shows, rather than book tours to promote the sales of recordings.

Major, successful artists will usually employ a road crew: The road crew is headed by a tour manager. Crew members provides stage lighting , live sound reinforcement , musical instrument tuning and maintenance , bodyguard for the artist and transportation of the equipment and music ensemble members. On large tours, the road crew may also include an accountant, stage manager, hairdressers, makeup artists and catering staff. Local crews are typically hired to help move equipment on and off stage.

On a small tour with less financial backing, all of these jobs may be handled by just a few roadies or by the musicians themselves. Bands signed with small "indie" labels and bands in genres such as hardcore punk are more likely to do tours without a road crew, or with minimal support. Artists such as singers and musicians may hire a number of people from other fields to assist them with their career.

The artist manager oversees all aspects of an artist's career in exchange for a percentage of the artist's income. An entertainment lawyer assists them with the details of their contracts with record companies and other deals. A business manager handles financial transactions, taxes and bookkeeping. A successful artist functions in the market as a brand and, as such, they may derive income from many other streams, such as merchandise , personal endorsements, appearances without performing at events or Internet-based services [36].

These are typically overseen by the artist's manager and take the form of relationships between the artist and companies that specialize in these products.

Singers may also hire a vocal coach , dance instructor , acting coach , personal trainer or life coach to help them. In the s, traditional lines that once divided singers, instrumentalists, publishers, record companies, distributors, retail and consumer electronics have become blurred or erased. Artists may record in a home studio using a high-end laptop and a digital recording program such as Protools or use Kickstarter to raise money for an expensive studio recording session without involving a record company.

Artists may choose to exclusively promote and market themselves using only free online video sharing services such as YouTube or using social media websites, bypassing traditional promotion and marketing by a record company. In the s, consumer electronics and computer companies such as Apple Computer have become digital music retailers. New digital music distribution technologies and the trends towards using sampling of older songs in new songs or blending different songs to create "mashup" recordings have also forced both governments and the music industry to re-examine the definitions of intellectual property and the rights of all the parties involved.

Also compounding the issue of defining copyright boundaries is the fact that the definition of "royalty" and "copyright" varies from country to country and region to region, which changes the terms of some of these business relationships. According to IFPI, [37] the global digital album sales grew by 6. Prior to December , the industry was dominated by the "Big Six": Additionally, according to an IFPI report published in August , [39] the big four accounted for Current Markets shares as of September are as follows: The largest players in this industry own more than subsidiary record labels or sublabels, each specializing in a certain market niche.

Only the industry's most popular artists are signed directly to the major label. These companies account for more than half of US market share. However, this has fallen somewhat in recent years, as the new digital environment allows smaller labels to compete more effectively.

Total album sales have declined in the early decades of the 21st century, leading some music critics to declare the death of the album. For instance, the only albums that went platinum in the US in were the soundtrack to the Disney animated film Frozen and Taylor Swift's , whereas several artists did in IFPI annual report. In its June 30, annual report filed with the U.

Digital sales caused this increase, with a Digital Album sales growth of Despite the decrease, physical albums were still the dominant album format. In general, the legal and institutional framework in Norway is characterised by a high degree of transparency, accountability and integrity, and the perception and the occurrence of corruption are very low.

However, there are some isolated cases showing that some municipalities have abused their position in public procurement processes. Norwegian prisons are humane, rather than tough, with emphasis on rehabilitation.

Norway maintains embassies in 82 countries. Norway issued applications for accession to the European Union EU and its predecessors in , and , respectively. While Denmark, Sweden and Finland obtained membership, the Norwegian electorate rejected the treaties of accession in referenda in and After the referendum, Norway maintained its membership in the European Economic Area EEA , an arrangement granting the country access to the internal market of the Union, on the condition that Norway implements the Union's pieces of legislation which are deemed relevant of which there were approximately seven thousand by [] Successive Norwegian governments have, since , requested participation in parts of the EU's co-operation that go beyond the provisions of the EEA agreement.

Non-voting participation by Norway has been granted in, for instance, the Union's Common Security and Defence Policy , the Schengen Agreement , and the European Defence Agency , as well as 19 separate programmes.

Norway contributes to international development. In addition, it participated in the s brokering of the Oslo Accords , an attempt to resolve the Israeli—Palestinian conflict.

The Norwegian Armed Forces numbers about 25, personnel, including civilian employees. According to mobilisation plans, full mobilisation produces approximately 83, combatant personnel. Norway has conscription including 6—12 months of training ; [] in , the country became the first in Europe and NATO to draft women as well as men. However, due to less need for conscripts after the Cold War ended with the break-up of the Soviet Union, few people have to serve if they are not motivated.

The military of Norway is divided into the following branches: Today, Norway ranks as the second-wealthiest country in the world in monetary value, with the largest capital reserve per capita of any nation. Foreign Policy magazine ranks Norway last in its Failed States Index for , judging Norway to be the world's most well-functioning and stable country.

The Norwegian economy is an example of a mixed economy , a prosperous capitalist welfare state and social democracy country featuring a combination of free market activity and large state ownership in certain key sectors.

Public health care in Norway is free after an annual charge of around kroner for those over 16 , and parents have 46 weeks paid [] parental leave. The state income derived from natural resources includes a significant contribution from petroleum production. Norway has an unemployment rate of 4. The egalitarian values of Norwegian society have kept the wage difference between the lowest paid worker and the CEO of most companies as much less than in comparable western economies.

The state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, such as the strategic petroleum sector Statoil , hydroelectric energy production Statkraft , aluminium production Norsk Hydro , the largest Norwegian bank DNB , and telecommunication provider Telenor.

When non-listed companies are included, the state has even higher share in ownership mainly from direct oil licence ownership. Norway is a major shipping nation and has the world's 6th largest merchant fleet , with 1, Norwegian-owned merchant vessels. Norway is a highly integrated member of most sectors of the EU internal market. Some sectors, such as agriculture, oil and fish, are not wholly covered by the EEA Treaty. Norway has also acceded to the Schengen Agreement and several other intergovernmental agreements among the EU member states.

The country is richly endowed with natural resources including petroleum, hydropower , fish, forests , and minerals. Large reserves of petroleum and natural gas were discovered in the s, which led to a boom in the economy.

Norway has obtained one of the highest standards of living in the world in part by having a large amount of natural resources compared to the size of the population.

Norway is the first country which banned cutting of trees deforestation , in order to prevent rain forests from vanishing. Crops, that are typically linked to forests' destruction are timber, soy, palm oil and beef.

Now Norway has to find a new way to provide these essential products without exerting negative influence on its environment. Norway is also the world's second-largest exporter of fish in value, after China.

The most valuable minerals are calcium carbonate limestone , building stone, nepheline syenite , olivine , iron, titanium , and nickel. In , the Norwegian government established the sovereign wealth fund "Government Pension Fund — Global" , which would be funded with oil revenues, including taxes, dividends, sales revenues and licensing fees.

This was intended to reduce overheating in the economy from oil revenues, minimise uncertainty from volatility in oil price, and provide a cushion to compensate for expenses associated with the ageing of the population. Finally, the government controls licensing of exploration and production of fields. The fund invests in developed financial markets outside Norway. It is the largest sovereign wealth fund in the world. As the stock markets tumbled in September , the fund was able to buy more shares at low prices.

In this way, the losses incurred by the market turmoil was recuperated by November Other nations with economies based on natural resources, such as Russia, are trying to learn from Norway by establishing similar funds.

The investment choices of the Norwegian fund are directed by ethical guidelines ; for example, the fund is not allowed to invest in companies that produce parts for nuclear weapons.

Norway's highly transparent investment scheme [] is lauded by the international community. In , the government sold one-third of the state-owned oil company Statoil in an IPO.

The next year, the main telecom supplier, Telenor , was listed on Oslo Stock Exchange. Since , economic growth has been rapid, pushing unemployment down to levels not seen since the early s unemployment in The international financial crisis has primarily affected the industrial sector, but unemployment has remained low, and was at 3.

In contrast to Norway, Sweden had substantially higher actual and projected unemployment numbers as a result of the recession. Thousands of mainly young Swedes migrated to Norway for work during these years, which is easy, as the labour market and social security systems overlap in the Nordic Countries. In the first quarter of , the GNP of Norway surpassed Sweden's for the first time in history, although its population is half the size.

Between and , Norwegian companies drilled oil wells, mostly in the North Sea. Oil fields not yet in production phase include: Due to the low population density, narrow shape and long coastlines of Norway, its public transport is less developed than in many European countries, especially outside the major cities. The country has long-standing water transport traditions, but the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications has in recent years implemented rail, road, and air transport through numerous subsidiaries to develop the country's infrastructure.

The railways transported 56,, passengers 2, million passenger-kilometres and 24,, tonnes of cargo 3, million tonne-kilometres. The most important national routes are part of the European route scheme. The two most prominent are the E6 going north-south through the entire country, and the E39 , which follows the West Coast.

National and county roads are managed by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. Norway has the world's largest registered stock of plug-in electric vehicles per capita.

Of the 98 airports in Norway, [] 52 are public, [] and 46 are operated by the state-owned Avinor. The central gateway to Norway by air is Oslo Airport, Gardermoen. Norwegian and Sami are the two official languages of Norway.

Both are used in public administration, schools, churches, and media. All Norwegian dialects are mutually intelligible, although listeners with limited exposure to dialects other than their own may struggle to understand certain phrases and pronunciations in some other dialects.

Several Uralic Sami languages are spoken and written throughout the country, especially in the north, by some members of the Sami people. Estimates suggest that about one third of the Norwegian Sami speak a Sami language. Today the majority of ethnic Kven have little or no knowledge of the language. According to the Kainun institutti , "The typical modern Kven is a Norwegian-speaking Norwegian who knows his genealogy. Some supporters have also advocated making Norwegian Sign Language an official language of the country.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Norwegian language was subject to strong political and cultural controversies. This led to the development of Nynorsk in the 19th century and to the formation of alternative spelling standards in the 20th century. Norwegian is similar to the other languages in Scandinavia: All three languages are to a degree mutually intelligible and can be, and commonly are, employed in communication among inhabitants of the Scandinavian countries.

As a result of the co-operation within the Nordic Council , inhabitants of all Nordic countries, including Iceland and Finland , have the right to communicate with Norwegian authorities in their own language.

Students who are children of immigrant parents are encouraged to learn the Norwegian language. The Norwegian government offers language instructional courses for immigrants wishing to obtain Norwegian citizenship. With increasing concern about assimilating immigrants, since 1 September , the government has required that an applicant for Norwegian citizenship give evidence of proficiency in either Norwegian or in one of the Sami languages, or give proof of having attended classes in Norwegian for hours, or meet the language requirements for university studies in Norway that is, by being proficient in one of the Scandinavian languages.

The primary foreign language taught in Norwegian schools is English, considered an international language since the post-WWII era. The majority of the population is fairly fluent in English, especially those born after World War II.

German, French and Spanish are also commonly taught as second or, more often, third languages. Russian, Japanese, Italian, Latin , and rarely Chinese Mandarin are offered in some schools, mostly in the cities. Traditionally, English, German and French were considered the main foreign languages in Norway.

These languages, for instance, were used on Norwegian passports until the s, and university students have a general right to use these languages when submitting their theses. Norway's population was 5,, people in October Norwegians are an ethnic North Germanic people. Since the late 20th century, Norway has attracted immigrants from southern and central Europe, the Mideast, Africa, Asia and beyond. In , of the total , with immigrant background, , had Norwegian citizenship Immigrants have settled in all Norwegian municipalities.

The Sami people are indigenous to the Far North and have traditionally inhabited central and northern parts of Norway and Sweden, as well as areas in northern Finland and in Russia on the Kola Peninsula. Another national minority are the Kven people , descendants of Finnish-speaking people who migrated to northern Norway from the 18th up to the 20th century. From the 19th century up to the s, the Norwegian government tried to assimilate both the Sami and the Kven, encouraging them to adopt the majority language, culture and religion.

Particularly in the 19th century, when economic conditions were difficult in Norway, tens of thousands of people migrated to the United States and Canada, where they could work and buy land in frontier areas. Many went to the Midwest and Pacific Northwest. In , according to the US Census Bureau, almost 4.

On 1 January [update] , the number of immigrants or children of two immigrants residing in Norway was ,, or Yearly immigration has increased since While yearly net immigration in — was on average 13,, it increased to 37, between and , and in net immigration reached 47, In , the immigrant community which includes immigrants and children born in Norway of immigrant parents grew by 55,, a record high.

Pakistani Norwegians are the largest non-European minority group in Norway. Most of their 32, members live in and around Oslo. The Iraqi and Somali immigrant populations have increased significantly in recent years.

The fastest growing immigrant groups in in absolute numbers were from Poland, Lithuania and Sweden. Separation of church and state happened significantly later in Norway than in most of Europe and is not yet complete. In , the Norwegian parliament voted to grant the Church of Norway greater autonomy, [] a decision which was confirmed in a constitutional amendment on 21 May Until parliamentary officials were required to be members of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Norway, and at least half of all government ministers had to be a member of the state church.

As state church, the Church of Norway's clergy were viewed as state employees, and the central and regional church administrations were part of the state administration.

Members of the Royal family are required to be members of the Lutheran church. On 1 January , Norway made the church independent of the state, but retained the Church's status as the "people's church". Most Norwegians are registered at baptism as members of the Church of Norway , which has been Norway's state church since its establishment.

In recent years the church has been granted increasing internal autonomy, but it retains its special constitutional status and other special ties to the state, and the constitution requires that the reigning monarch must be a member and states that the country's values are based on its Christian and humanist heritage.

Many remain in the church to participate in the community and practices such as baptism , confirmation , marriage and burial rites. In , about In the early s, studies estimated that between 4. The Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic Lutheran congregations in Norway have about 27, members in total. Among non-Christian religions, Islam is the largest, with , registered members , and probably fewer than , in total. Sikhs first came to Norway in the early s. The troubles in Punjab after Operation Blue Star and riots committed against Sikhs in India after the assassination of Indira Gandhi led to an increase in Sikh refugees moving to Norway.

Drammen also has a sizeable population of Sikhs; the largest gurdwara in north Europe was built in Lier. There are eleven Buddhist organisations, grouped under the Buddhistforbundet organisation, with slightly over 14, members, [] which make up 0. The Baha'i religion has slightly more than 1, adherents. It is associated with the huge immigration from Eritrea and Ethiopia , and to a lesser extent from Central and Eastern European and Middle Eastern countries.

Other fast-growing religions were the Roman Catholic Church As in other Scandinavian countries, the ancient Norse followed a form of native Germanic paganism known as Norse paganism.

By the end of the 11th century, when Norway had been Christianised , the indigenous Norse religion and practices were prohibited. Remnants of the native religion and beliefs of Norway survive today in the form of names, referential names of cities and locations, the days of the week, and other parts of everyday language. Foreningen Forn Sed was formed in and has been recognised by the Norwegian government.

The Sami minority retained their shamanistic religion well into the 18th century, when most converted to Christianity under the influence of Dano-Norwegian Lutheran missionaries. Although some insist that "indigenous Sami religion had effectively been eradicated,' [] athropologist Gutorm Gjessing 's Changing Lapps argues that the Samis "were outwardly and to all practical purposes converted to Christianity, but at the subconscious and unconscious level, the shamistic frenzy survived, more or less latent, only awaiting the necessary stimulus to break out into the open.

Five percent gave no response. From the s, improvements in public health occurred as a result of development in several areas such as social and living conditions , changes in disease and medical outbreaks, establishment of the health care system, and emphasis on public health matters. Vaccination and increased treatment opportunities with antibiotics resulted in great improvements within the Norwegian population.

Improved hygiene and better nutrition were factors that contributed to improved health. The disease pattern in Norway changed from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases and chronic diseases as cardiovascular disease. Inequalities and social differences are still present in public health in Norway today. In the infant mortality rate was 2. For girls it was 2. Higher education in Norway is offered by a range of seven universities , five specialised colleges, 25 university colleges as well as a range of private colleges.

Public education is virtually free, regardless of nationality. The ultimate responsibility for the education lies with the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. The Norwegian farm culture continues to play a role in contemporary Norwegian culture. In the 19th century, it inspired a strong romantic nationalistic movement, which is still visible in the Norwegian language and media.

Norwegian culture blossomed with nationalist efforts to achieve an independent identity in the areas of literature, art and music. This continues today in the performing arts and as a result of government support for exhibitions, cultural projects and artwork. Norway has been considered a progressive country, which has adopted legislation and policies to support women's rights, minority rights, and LGBT rights. From the s, gender equality also came high on the state agenda, with the establishment of a public body to promote gender equality, which evolved into the Gender Equality and Anti-Discrimination Ombud.

Civil society organisations also continue to play an important role, and the women's rights organisations are today organised in the Norwegian Women's Lobby umbrella organisation. In , the Norwegian constitution was amended to grant absolute primogeniture to the Norwegian throne, meaning that the eldest child, regardless of gender, takes precedence in the line of succession.

As it was not retroactive, the current successor to the throne is the eldest son of the King, rather than his eldest child. The Norwegian constitution Article 6 states that "For those born before the year it shall The Sami people have for centuries been the subject of discrimination and abuse by the dominant cultures in Scandinavia and Russia, those countries claiming possession of Sami lands. In regard to LGBT rights, Norway was the first country in the world to enact an anti-discrimination law protecting the rights of gays and lesbians.

In , Norway became the second country to legalise civil union partnerships for same-sex couples, and on 1 January Norway became the sixth country to grant full marriage equality to same-sex couples.

As a promoter of human rights, Norway has held the annual Oslo Freedom Forum conference, a gathering described by The Economist as "on its way to becoming a human-rights equivalent of the Davos economic forum.

The Norwegian cinema has received international recognition. The documentary film Kon-Tiki won an Academy Award. In , Arne Skouen 's Nine Lives was nominated, but failed to win.

Pinchcliffe Grand Prix , an animated feature film directed by Ivo Caprino. The film was released in and is based on characters from Norwegian cartoonist Kjell Aukrust. It is the most widely seen Norwegian film of all time. Nils Gaup 's Pathfinder , the story of the Sami , was nominated for an Oscar. Since the s, the film industry has thrived, producing up to 20 feature films each year.

It included a memorable battle in the snow. The attraction and the film ceased their operations on 5 October The classical music of the romantic composers Edvard Grieg , Rikard Nordraak and Johan Svendsen is internationally known, as is the modern music of Arne Nordheim.

Norwegian black metal , a form of rock music in Norway , has been an influence in world music since the late 20th century. Since the s, Norway's export of black metal , a lo-fi, dark and raw form of heavy metal , has been developed by such bands as Emperor , Darkthrone , Gorgoroth , Mayhem , Burzum , and Immortal.

More recently bands such as Enslaved , Kvelertak , Dimmu Borgir and Satyricon have evolved the genre into the present day while still garnering worldwide fans. Controversial events associated with the black metal movement in the early s included several church burnings and two prominent murder cases. The jazz scene in Norway is thriving. Norway has a strong folk music tradition which remains popular to this day. Other internationally recognised bands are A-ha , Röyksopp , Ylvis.

In the s and s, the group maintained its popularity domestically, and has remained successful outside Norway, especially in Germany, Switzerland, France, and Brazil. In recent years, various Norwegian songwriters and production teams have contributed to the music of other international artists.

Lene Marlin has written songs for Rihanna and Lovebugs. Norway enjoys many music festivals throughout the year, all over the country. Norway is the host of one of the world's biggest extreme sport festivals with music, Ekstremsportveko —a festival held annually in Voss. Oslo used to have a summer parade similar to the German Love Parade. Even in its first year, "Musikkens Dag" gathered thousands of people and artists in the streets of Oslo.

The arrival of Christianity around the year brought Norway into contact with European mediaeval learning, hagiography and history writing. Merged with native oral tradition and Icelandic influence, this influenced the literature written in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. Little Norwegian literature came out of the period of the Scandinavian Union and the subsequent Dano-Norwegian union — , with some notable exceptions such as Petter Dass and Ludvig Holberg.

During the union with Denmark, the government imposed using only written Danish, which decreased the writing of Norwegian literature. Two major events precipitated a major resurgence in Norwegian literature: Secondly, seized by the spirit of revolution following the American and French revolutions, the Norwegians created their first Constitution in By the late 19th century, in the Golden Age of Norwegian literature, the so-called "Great Four" emerged: Kielland's novels and short stories are mostly naturalistic.

Although an important contributor to early romantic nationalism, especially Peer Gynt , Henrik Ibsen is better known for his pioneering realistic dramas such as The Wild Duck and A Doll's House. They caused an uproar because of his candid portrayals of the middle classes, complete with infidelity, unhappy marriages, and corrupt businessmen.

In the 20th century, three Norwegian novelists were awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature: Writers such as the following also made important contributions: In the 20th century, Norwegian academics have been pioneering in many social sciences , including criminology , sociology and peace and conflict studies. They won the prize for their groundbreaking work identifying the cells that make up a positioning system in the human brain, our "in-built GPS". With expansive forests, Norway has long had a tradition of building in wood.

Many of today's most interesting new buildings are made of wood, reflecting the strong appeal that this material continues to hold for Norwegian designers and builders. With Norway's conversion to Christianity some 1, years ago, churches were built. Stonework architecture was introduced from Europe for the most important structures, beginning with the construction of Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim. In the early Middle Ages , wooden stave churches were constructed throughout Norway.

Some of them have survived; they represent Norway's most unusual contribution to architectural history. Another notable example of wooden architecture is the buildings at Bryggen Wharf in Bergen, also on the list for World Cultural Heritage sites, consisting of a row of tall, narrow wooden structures along the quayside.

The city Kongsberg had a church built in the Baroque style. After Norway's union with Denmark was dissolved in , Oslo became the capital. The architect Christian H. Grosch designed the earliest parts of the University of Oslo , the Oslo Stock Exchange , and many other buildings and churches constructed in that early national period.

The s, when functionalism dominated, became a strong period for Norwegian architecture. It is only since the late 20th century that Norwegian architects have achieved international renown. Its debating chamber, in timber, is an abstract version of a lavvo, the traditional tent used by the nomadic Sami people. For an extended period, the Norwegian art scene was dominated by artwork from Germany and Holland as well as by the influence of Copenhagen.

It was in the 19th century that a truly Norwegian era began, first with portraits, later with impressive landscapes.

Johan Christian Dahl — , originally from the Dresden school, eventually returned to paint the landscapes of western Norway, defining Norwegian painting for the first time. Norway's newly found independence from Denmark encouraged painters to develop their Norwegian identity, especially with landscape painting by artists such as Kitty Kielland , a female painter who studied under Hans Gude , and Harriet Backer , another pioneer among female artists, influenced by impressionism.

Frits Thaulow , an impressionist, was influenced by the art scene in Paris as was Christian Krohg , a realist painter, famous for his paintings of prostitutes. Lefse is a Norwegian potato flatbread, usually topped with large amounts of butter and sugar, most common around Christmas. And the most popular pastry among all population is vaffel. It is different from Belgian in taste and consistency and is served with sour cream, brown cheese, butter and sugar, or strawberry or raspberry jam, which can all be mixed or eaten separately.

Sports are a central part of Norwegian culture, and popular sports include association football, biathlon , cross-country skiing , ski jumping , speed skating , and, to a lesser degree, ice hockey and handball. Association football is the most popular sport in Norway in terms of active membership. In — polling, football ranked far behind biathlon and cross-country skiing in terms of popularity as spectator sports. The highest FIFA ranking Norway has achieved is 2nd, a position it has held twice, in and in Chess is also gaining popularity in Norway.

Magnus Carlsen is the current world champion. Bandy is a traditional sport in Norway and the country is one of the four founders of Federation of International Bandy. In terms of licensed athletes, it is the second biggest winter sport in the world. Norway first participated at the Olympic Games in , and has sent athletes to compete in every Games since then, except for the sparsely attended Games and the Summer Olympics in Moscow when they participated in the American-led boycott.

Norway leads the overall medal tables at the Winter Olympic Games with considerable margin. The main attractions of Norway are the varied landscapes that extend across the Arctic Circle. It is famous for its fjord-indented coastline and its mountains, ski resorts, lakes and woods.

Much of the nature of Norway remains unspoiled, and thus attracts numerous hikers and skiers. The fjords, mountains and waterfalls in Western and Northern Norway attract several hundred thousand foreign tourists each year. In the cities, cultural idiosyncrasies such as the Holmenkollen ski jump attract many visitors, as well as science abilities and cultural learnings and things such as Bryggen in Bergen and the Vigeland Sculpture Park in Oslo, and they do not know about it.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 4 January This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Norway disambiguation. Show map of Europe. Location of the Kingdom of Norway and its integral overseas areas and dependencies: Kven Romani Romanes [2]. Does not include Svalbard and Jan Mayen. With the territories, it is the 61st largest country at , square kilometers This percentage is for the mainland, Svalbard, and Jan Mayen.

This percentage counts glaciers as "land". It's calculated as 19, History of Norway and History of Scandinavia. Petty kingdoms of Norway. Unification of Norway and Hereditary Kingdom of Norway.

Viking swords found in Norway, preserved at the Bergen Museum. Kingdom of Norway — Greater Norway and Civil war era in Norway. United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway. Norwegian protectorate and Norwegian romantic nationalism. China says it is restarting trade talks with the US.

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