Best Roth IRA Accounts

 · ETrade IRA Review. With their large advertising budget and amusing commercials featuring money-savvy babies, E*Trade charges no annual fee for an IRA.

For Most People the Answer is No. An investor can contribute to an IRA ira by transferring funds online from a bank or brokerage account, sending a check, or completing a wire roth. While income limits are a non-issue for the backdoor, there exists one important prerequisite to be able to properly execute the backdoor Roth. You can contact their customer support either through phone or email. See all investment choices.

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Etrade minimum investment to open brokerage account, ROTH IRA. Etrade minimum balance, initial deposit amount requirement.

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I have the high yield checking linked to a regular brokerage account and a Roth IRA account, all with one login. This is a really great deal! Fidelity added access to some commision free ETFs a few weeks later. These ETFs have lower expense ratios than even some of the highly acclaimed Vanguard funds. And since they are ETFs you can literally buy them one share at a time.

I love the consolidation. Thank you for all the valuable information. Hindsight can be very expensive in these decisions. Hey Ryan, I been reading Suze Orman book so, it really got me thinking on life. Orman talked about T.

Rowe because of no load fund or something like that. In fact I love to learn. What should I ask and know to invest wisely, and can recommend two books that I can read on investment something that not to basic or difficult.

Elisabeth, congrats on getting started so young — you have the opportunity to create a vast amount of wealth over your lifetime. You are already looking in the right direction. You want to get a no load fund to start with, and you want to keep your fees low so you have more of your money working for you. As for recommending two investing books, that is difficult for me to do. I would recommend reading a great personal finance book that covers multiple topics and gives you the basics of investing, then points you in the right direction from there.

One of the best I have read recently is Your Money: The Missing Manual , by J. You will find a lot of great personal finance topics in his book. There is a section on investing, and it points out other great references as well. The important thing right now is to do exactly what you are doing — get started, keep your expenses low, and set it on autopilot. If you maintain that formula, you are halfway there. I have my employer K with Fidelity, should I choose a different firm simply to avoid having all my retirement managed by one company?

Mary, there is no problem having the same firm manage your k and IRA. If you are happy with Fidelity, then it makes sense to open an IRA with them as well. I have gone through your aticle over and over many times. Though I am not a Chinese and not an American. As for other American investments, I believe you should be able to invest in American stocks, bonds, or funds, but I am not sure of the process or where you can open accounts.

I recommend contacting some of the firms listed in this article and asking if they accept investments from investors located outside the US. What about Wells Fargo? I am looking at the mutual funds avail from my company and I see that I am contributing to Vanguard Target Retirement Fund in my k.

However, I recommend first looking at the investment options and associated costs. Wells Fargo might have fewer investment options in their IRA plans than can be found within their k plans. I am a grandmother, and would like to leave something to my 4 grandchildren. What which can i invest every month, leave it there and let it grow?

My grandchildren are 9, 8, 8, and 4. Janice, I would consider opening a College Savings Plans , which is a tax advantaged savings account that can be used for educational costs. There are quite a few advantages to these programs, which are listed in the article I linked to. If they do have earned income, then an IRA would be a great way to help save for their retirement.

However, a college savings plan will serve a more immediate need. I am 52 years old, and admit that I started my savings late. I am currently working with a company that is a government contractor. Can you give me some advice regarding whether to change it to a Roth, how much I should safely be investing, etc.?

Can you help me? Robin, since you are nearing the point in life where you will soon be making retirement plans, I recommend taking an afternoon and meeting with a financial planner who can better assist you with your questions. A financial planner can give you more specific information for your questions based on your financial position, which will give a better idea of which actions you need to take.

Regarding making the monthly contributions, I suggest taking a hard look at your budget — you may be able top find some places where you can scale back in order to stash away more money for retirement. I dont want to do anything like trade or be bothered with details…. Sandy, I understand and admire your desire to give your grandson an investment gift, but I recommend speaking with a financial advisor to make sure you have your needs taken care of first.

The first question I would ask is if you are financially prepared if you live another 30 years? I have several grandchildren. Is there any advantage to get each of them a Roth IRA now? Does this make any sense? A better idea would probably be to open a College Savings Plan , which is a college savings plan that offers great tax benefits.

There is currently a Free Money bonus when you open an account through the Ohio plan people from all states are eligible. This is what I have for my daughter, and it would work well in your situation as well. Ryan, i had a quesiton for you.

Any of the companies listed on this page will be a good long term option as well — it just depends on your needs. As for which type of investment, I recommend starting with a target date fund, then adjusting your investment portfolio once you learn more about investing. This will give you a well-rounded portfolio to start with.

Just remember that there is no one-size-fits-all investment approach and you need to go out and learn more about investing — no one cares about your money as much as you do!

I wish to know more about this investment firm. I am Kenyan and live in Nairobi, Kenya. Can I do this while in Kenya. I have been meaning to start my own investment firm here in Nairobi. I am a marketer by skill and I can partner with you here in Africa. Kindly give me more information on how i can do this form of investments. And which one should I check into? As for which company you should look into, all of these options are quality options that offer slightly different services.

That said, the main goal right now should be trying to determine how much money you will need for retirement and working on building a plan to reach that goal. You may find it better to enlist the help of a financial planner to assist you. The reason I recommend starting with a target date fund is because it will automatically diversify your assets and reduce your overall risk.

Should I go with ING? Tim, I have a ShareBuilder account the investment firm owned by ING , and it is a great, low-cost brokerage firm and would probably fit your needs very well.

ShareBuilder is a good option because you can 1. Best of luck to you and your family! That said, each financial advisor is different and I am sure there are many good individuals who working for Edward Jones. In general, the Edward Jones investment firm has a strong reputation. I recommend meeting with an advisor and interviewing them.

Ask questions about how they receive payment, ask what kinds of commissions apply to the investments they recommend, and ask about their licenses and background and any other questions you feel are important. Ryan, I am a novice but I would like to start investing due to the fact that my job has recently allowed me to do so. What would you recommend if I could use that word for a person like me? You can find these types of investments at almost all brokerage firms and mutual fund firms, such as Vanguard, Fidelity, etc.

Then, begin reading as much as you can about investing and once you feel more comfortable with the concept of investing and asset allocation, then you can branch out into other types of investments. If you want a guarantee not to lose money, then I recommend opening a Certificate of Deposit at your bank. This can also be done online if you have an online bank account. An alternative is a balanced fund such as a Target Date Retirement Fund , which is automatically diversified based on a future date.

The advantage to these funds is the diversification meaning your assets are spread among various investment, which equates to less risk , and they are easy to set up and maintain. However, there is a possibility of losing money with these investments. This is a step by step guide to getting on the path to financial freedom.

I need all the help my income is very sad and poor. Shari, the most important step you have right now is to understand your cash flow — how much you are earning, where it is going, how much debt you have, etc.

It will be easier to understand where you are financially once you have that knowledge. This is a guide that can help you change the way you think and act about money and hopefully will help you get on the path toward financial freedom. Bookmark that page and start living it, and good things will happen!

I am interested in investing in a roth IRA but am so confused with the options: Which do you personally invest in? I am 27 years old and I was wondering if I could really have at least a million dollars by the time that I retire just using a roth ira or do I have to invest in other areas to have this amount at retirement age?

Ilemis, see the comment above regarding starting with a target date fund. Once you know more about investing, you can spread out your approach. To answer your other question — sure, you could have a million dollars by the time you retire if you invest only in IRAs, but it is highly unlikely. You will more than likely need to invest with other types of investments as well.

I recommend using an employer sponsored retirement plan such as a k if you have the opportunity. They have great tax benefits and some employers offer to match part of the contribution. I was made aware that they also offer IRA accounts and other investment accounts like any other banks such CDs, money market, etc.

Would it make sense for me to open up an IRA account with this credit union for reasons other than convenience? Or, should I just check out the other outfits mentioned here? The only investing strategy I know is our company k which I have for the past 5 years now.

Hi Ryan, Just a follow up on my previous inquiry about opening an IRA with a credit union, what is the rate of earnings between the credit union and the others such as Vanguard, Fidelity and the rest? I do not have money other than my paycheck so I wanted to be a bit certain where there would be more gains. Hi City, in general, I prefer opening an IRA or other investment account in a non-bank setting because many banks have fewer investment options and higher investment fees than you can find in a traditional brokerage or mutual fund firm.

Regarding returns on investment, there are very few investments that offer guaranteed returns. For example, a CD at a bank offers a guaranteed return, but the returns are often very low. Stocks and mutual funds tend to have higher returns, but carry more risk. You can read more about the concept here: Finally, if you are having doubts about investment risk, consider opening a Target Date Retirement Fund , which will automatically diversify your investments across several investment types, reducing your overall risk level.

I appreciate it, thanks again, have a good life. Vanguard is one of the worst, they charge a yearly maintenance fee on an Roth IRA. They also charge too much for individual stock purchases. Still no one out there is perfect they seem to offer the best prices across the board. Only high quality dividend paying funds are a good buy period.

Harold, Vanguard does not charge a yearly IRA maintenance fee for customers who elect to receive paperless statements via e-mail. You can easily set this up online with just a few clicks, or call their customer service — I have always gotten through to the CS reps within a couple minutes wait even on weekends and their customer service has always been very helpful.

Vanguard also has a wide selection of mutual funds that have received high ratings from numerous third party sources, and index funds that are among the lowest priced and most competitive on the market. You bring up a great point about individual stock trades, so if you are an active trader, Vanguard may not be the best brokerage firm for your needs. Scottrade, and some of the other brokers mentioned in this article may be a better fit for active traders or those with a different investment style.

I am a 20 year old college student and i am interested in opening a roth IRA and i am pretty inexperienced with investing so i was considering using Vangaurd, T. Rowe Price or Fidelity and was wondering which one was best or if i should consider something completely diffrent. Tom, each of these companies are good options for low cost mutual funds and index funds, which are probably the best option for beginning investors see Best Investment Strategies For Beginners for more information about getting started.

My recommendation is to come up with a rough game plan for opening an account, including how much money you will be able to invest with to start some of these companies have higher minimums than others , will you be able to make continuing contributions, and which types of investments you are most likely to invest with.

Then compare the companies to see which best meets your needs. We have no unsecured debt. What do you think? Drew, everyone has a different definition or comfort level regarding how much they need for an emergency savings account. If you and your wife feel comfortable with a couple grand in emergency savings and are well insured for home, auto, health, etc.

Just make sure you have a decent amount of money to cover any insurance deductibles that may arise, or any other large expenses that could pop up. If you choose to use your emergency savings to fund your IRA, then I recommend making it a point to repay yourself by making monthly contributions to your emergency savings so you can build it to a larger amount.

I want to start a Roth IRA for my husband and myself. I know absolutely nothing about investing. I am not sure it would benefit me at all to be able to choose my own mutual funds since I am challenged when it comes to investing. Could you recommend the best company for me? Of course I want high yields, and minimum fees. Thank you so much! Ronda, all of the above companies are great companies, but based on your needs, I recommend going with one of the major mutual fund houses listed.

They will offer a wide variety of low cost mutual funds that should meet your needs. I recommend reading about asset allocation and how stocks, bonds, and mutual funds work, then making a decision based on your newly found knowledge.

If you are looking to get started in the mean time, then it may not be a bad idea to start with a Target Date Retirement Fund , which is automatically allocated based on a target retirement date. The benefit is less overall maintenance, but there may also be higher fees and a little less control.

Target date funds are a great place to start, but they may not be for everyone, so I recommend continuing to learn and research as you go, and adjusting your investments accordingly. What is your professional opinion? I want to supplement my retirement with a Roth IRA but I am having difficulty with determining what my next step will be. Madison, I personally prefer the large mutual fund firms or discount brokers over most banks because they typically have a larger selection of investments, and usually offer lower commissions or expense ratios — both of which have the potential to eat a large portion of your profits if they get out of hand.

The companies listed in this article are all great options, but that does not mean they are the only options. It pays to shop around and find a company you are comfortable with and which will meet your needs. Regarding your other question about investing only in ETFs… You can, or you can choose to invest with some ETFs, some mutual funds, or any mixture of investments. The best place to start is with a little research on the pros and cons of different investment types, then try to match your investment goals with the investments that will help you reach your desired ending point.

A little note to add to my previous post. I do have the initial funds amount to start the IRA account. My question pertains to Roth IRA mutual funds. What happens if you put more than that in there? Cookie, here is more information about contribution limits: Gigi, you can open an account at both locations, but you can only contribute the maximum across all accounts. Then you would need to wait until the next calendar year begins before you could contribute more to a Roth IRA account.

That said, you can make stock trades at Vanguard though they are more expensive than stock trades at Scottrade , and you can buy stocks, mutual funds, ETFs, bonds, and other investments at Scottrade. Ryan, thank you for clearing that up. I have a few more questions for you. But you can open a joint investment account and have IRAs for each of you. From my experience, Vanguard has a great customer service center and should be able to walk you through the entire account opening process.

I hav no savings of any kind. Kids out of college. My original plan is to continue collecting salary from company after retirement till I die but though solid, business can fold up due to economy in future and then no fund to rely on. I want to do the financial planning without advisor and will not need any fund being saved for at least 13 years.

GettingOld, I recommend speaking with a financial advisor because you have several options at hand. You have a lot of options right now, and you need someone who can look at your entire financial picture to give you a good idea of which options are available to you, and the associated risks involved with each of them.

I have a question about minimum investments. Not talking about STAR fund at this point. Does any of these allow me to rebalance my portfolio? But Vanguard has a great customer service department and can answer that question in a matter of moments. I would try calling.

I worked for a few years and now I am back to school to take my graduate study. I rolled over my k from my previous employer into a Vanguard traditional IRA account recently. I was told that if I pay the tax withheld using funds other than the IRA fund, I should be able to save some money, as using the IRA fund to pay tax is considered as early distributions.

Is there any form that I need to fill out and explain what kind of fund source I will use to pay the tax withheld? Should I mail a check to Vanguard? BW, I recommend speaking with a financial professional regarding your situation, as there are many variables to consider.

Hello Ryan, my name is Deyan. However i spent some time reading i figured out that for me and my wife a Roth IRA would work fine. Now my question is: I need someone basically to take care of my future portfolio because i wont be able to do it instead i will loose my money? Deyan, there are a couple ways you can go, but it sounds to me like you are looking for an independent financial advisor read tips on how to hire a financial advisor for more information.

Be sure to do a background check on the financial advisor and understand how all fees are assessed before handing over any money. You want to make sure any financial recommendations are made because they are in your best interest, not because they give the financial planner the highest commission. You can also go to a company such as Scottrade, which offers an online brokerage and individual storefronts where you can find a broker to help you make trades.

This gives you a little more freedom if you wish to have a more hands-on approach. I use several of these brokerages for investments. I started using Scottrade at age 16 because it is very user friendly. There are several others that I like but my point here is to not pick just one. Each one has its own pros and cons and using more than one online brokerage can give you several advantages as opposed to just sticking with one for all your investments. If you prefer using just one to keep things simple, consider opening a couple other accounts with just the minimum needed so you are able to use their research tools.

Are there certain requirements to be eligible to open an IRA? You gave a good list, well done for sure. Rowe Price or Fidelity? Matt, You can buy other funds, but you may or may not be able to do so through Vanguard — it depends on whether or not the other brokers make those funds available to outside mutual fund houses or other brokerages. My yearly income is high.

I have already max out my k, and was recently suggested to create a non deductable IRA account first and, subsequently, convert it to a Roth IRA. I like this idea, and my question to you is if any of the companies described in your text would be able to do this for me, the two steps of creating the non deductable IRA account and convert it to Roth immediately after?

On another note, I read in some messages that people like more one or another investment option because they have savings or checking accounts. I might be missing the point but, what are the advanges of having these accounts available if the account would be max out and the IRA money is not suposed to be withdrawn from the account until an older age?

And another question, may I contribute this year, before April 15 with funds from and after April 15 with funds from , to the IRA account, to increase the total contribution amount? To answer your questions: Yes, you can open a Traditional non-deductible IRA at any of these brokers and then immediately convert it to a Roth IRA note that it may take a day or two to make the initial money transfer, but converting the non-deductible to a Roth should be a same day event if done before close of business.

Some financial institutions specialize in only one of these areas, so you may find it better for your needs to use more than one service. The only requirement is that you meet earned income requirements.

Thanks for your answer to my other question, it was very helpful. I have another question for you. Is this something you would recommend? Will I be able to transfer everything including gains without incurring fees? Scottrade is a great brokerage and would most likely fit your needs well.

The other benefits include no account maintenance fees or minimum balance requirements, and a wide variety of investment options, including stocks, bonds, CDs, options, ETFs, mutual funds… they even have Vanguard funds available. I have transferred multiple investments into Vanguard.

Transferring an IRA would be similar. My new job uses Fidelity for our k wish I had waited to roll the other over to that. Any thoughts when considering which to move to or should I split things up some? Otherwise, it is generally much easier to monitor and balance assets when you have them spread among fewer locations. Peter, I wrote this article awhile ago to help people just starting with their investments: Best Investment Strategies For Beginners. Feel free to use this as a resource to get started, and be sure to read other resources for additional information specific to your situation.

I love the article!! The agent at vanguard told us once we do that we have to choose where we want to put our money. Our problem is that neither one of us knows anything about investing so we wont know what funds to choose. I would like to stay at vanguard because of all of the great news about them but we cant manage our own account. But you have several options to help you decide. One option is to start with a Target Date Retirement Fund until you can learn more about investing.

This will give you a diversified portfolio to get you going. Hello Ryan — I stumbled across your site and appreciate your info and replies. I am looking to rollover my employer K after being laid off and was looking into my credit union or bank.

I believe my employer was with Vanguard and I liked the mix of investing I had then changed to Mercer. I am assuming I just open an account with Vanguard, correct? What are your thoughts about SF and their mutual fund options? Should I considering adding the k rollover to SF? I have about 25 days to get this done. Thank you for any input. You have a couple choices regarding your old k: The benefit of rolling it into an IRA is that you will have more control over your investments, and if you want to, you can eventually decide to do a Roth IRA Conversion.

Note that you may be required to pay taxes on your conversion if you had a traditional k plan and not a Roth k. Regrading your current Roth IRA: I find, however, that it is usually easier to manage all your investments if you have the majority of them in one place. So find which company offers you the best investing options with the most reasonable costs and go with that company. I am 29 years old and looking to open my first Roth IRA.

I was thinking of going with Vanguard although, I do have an ING account- which would make it easier to go with Sharebuilder. I was wondering if you would recommend ETFs or mutual funds? Should I consider putting some of the money into bonds or a more secure option? Rachel, I recommend looking into which type of funds you will be using, then determining the availability and cost of investing with those types of funds at the different brokerages. For example, you can get many Vanguard mutual funds through Vanguard without paying any transaction fees, which can help you reduce long term costs.

So this is definitely something to keep in mind. In addition, you could set up an automatic allotment or investing program to send in a contribution once a month, or with every check, instead of waiting to invest once a year.

The other factor is Dollar Cost Averaging , which can help smooth the purchase price of the equities or other investments your purchase. I recommend doing some research first, or speaking with a financial professional before making your long term investment decisions. You can also consider a lifecycle fund to get you started, which will automatically balance your portfolio.

That may not be the best long term option, but it is hands off and a good way to get started with investing. Thanks for all the helpful info. I also recently opened a joint account with my wife at Edward Jones that I invested a lump sum in mutual funds. Now my rep is wanting me to open a roth for my wife. I was wondering your thoughts on Edward Jones firm? I am increasingly hearing more great things about Vanguard and Fidelity year after year.

I am wondering if I am missing out. Although I will not be maxing it out, so it might be hard to guage. What are your thoughts about ed jones and would I have an individual that I deal with at a place such as vanguard or fidelity? I have an initial investment of abount to Tony, Both Fidelity and Vanguard are great places for your investments, but they may or may not be the right place for your investments depending on your investment style.

Basically, the difference boils down to how much you want to manage your money. Fidelity and Vanguard are both more of a DIY investment brokerage. You make all the decisions regarding how your money is to be invested. The funds typically cost less than many other places, but everything is up to you. You will probably pay a little more with Edward Jones, but you are paying for their funds as well as for someone to help advise you with your investment plan and decisions.

In the end it boils down to how comfortable you are making your own investment decisions. I feel my rep is a little bit of a salesman at times. He calls me frequently to invest more and in certain mutual funds. Now I know this is his job but wonder if he is motivated by his commissions and not necessarily in my best interest.

Lets say in 25 years with the average amount of investing. I noticed in the comments that you and several other people have spoken against having investments in TDRFs over the long haul. Are there other avenues for passive investors besides TDRFs? And lastly I have been considering opening up a separate investment account from my IRA where I would use the earnings from this account towards the purchase of a house.

Is this a wise decision? And what are the tax implications from this? It is a better default option than many alternatives. For example, your asset allocation will be thrown off if you have a portion of your investment portfolio in a target date fund, and a large portion in other funds. You would have to pay taxes on any earnings you make from your investment. Our employers do not offer a k plan and I want to open an IRA for the both of us. And would you still recommend the Vanguard fund for the long term?

If not, are there any other long term Vanguard funds you would recommend? So if you need the tax break right now, then a Traditional IRA will certainly help out.

That said, you will want to grow a diversified portfolio over time. The Vanguard can be an important part of your portfolio, but you may wish to diversify your holdings over time so you will spread out your risk.

I just saw your blog, and is very very full of good information on investing!!!. If you could give me some tips and guidance that would really be a big help from you.

I have no clue what to do with a roth ira. Do I have to trade and move money around? I am 47 and plan to retire in 9 years and want to open a roth ira. I am interested in a no load fund with no minimum deposit. What do you suggest for me? I am 26 and have about 3, dollars to invest with a monthly contributation of about dollars but with bad economy I want to be able to go lower if need be.

I am trying to find the company to best meet my needs and was hoping for some direction from you if possible. James, any of these will work well. My recommendation is to look at the minimum required balances and see if the brokerage firms offer funds that you can afford.

For example, Vanguard has higher minimum requirements than several other companies. Some companies are also willing to waive a minimum buy in if you contribute on a regular basis. I recommend spending some time looking at the various offerings that meet your current budget, and then go from there. That should help you eliminate a lot of the confusion. I have question for you Mr. Ryan Im 31 years old looking to invest dollars for a long term profit with out losing much or any at all.

This will be my 1st investment what do you recommend? Awesome website and comments. I probably will not retire until I am 62 or older. Because of my age, is the Roth still a good way to go? I am usually quite conservative with my money, but I want to be able to retire in the style in which I am currently accustomed travel, travel, travel.

Patty, a Roth is still a great option at your age. Thrift Savings Plan contributions are tax exempt and are taxed when you make withdrawals in retirement age.

Roth IRA contributions are made with money that has already been taxed, but withdrawals made during retirement will be tax exempt. There is more good news — you can make contributions to both retirement plans. So you can enjoy the benefits of both options. One way to do this is to contribute the maximum amount to your Roth IRA and then contribute your remaining investment allocation to the TSP. That way you are consistently making investments into both plans. First, I must thank you for the wonderful information and dedicated responses to all of the comments.

I wanted to know your specific thoughts on this. Thanks for what you do! Ruth, thanks for your comment. Taking the tax break now gives you an immediate benefit, which is always nice.

However, this may or may not be the best option for you in the long run. I recommend speaking with a financial planner who can look at your total financial picture and help you better understand your retirement planning options to give you an idea of the best way to plan your taxes for now and in the future.

Surviving spouses receive the same benefit, but they are not required to take distributions immediately. Also, because there are no taxes owed on Roth IRA contributions, setting aside as much as possible in a Roth IRA can help reduce the size of a taxable estate, leaving more money for heirs. Tax diversification in retirement —Retirees are required to pay taxes on distributions from retirement plans such as a k or traditional IRA, as well as for Social Security.

Retirees can strategize just how much they take from these taxable income sources. Roth IRA distributions can also be used in cases where the use of other income sources would bump a person into a higher tax bracket because they don't count as taxable income. Anyone with earnings above these figures cannot contribute to Roth IRA accounts.

Does not reduce taxable income —Because only after-tax dollars go into Roth IRAs, there are no initial taxes. This tax credit is non-refundable. Minimum holding period —Tax-free withdrawals on earnings in retirement cannot be made unless funds in the account have been held for at least five years, though this only applies to people who start Roth IRAs near retirement. The point at which this period begins is largely dependent on whether the distributions are qualified or non-qualified.

For qualified distributions, this period begins the first day of the first year in which the Roth IRA was funded. For non-qualified distributions, there are separate five-year periods for each Roth IRA conversion. Each begins the first day of the year in which the conversion is made. Charitable donations —Account holders that plan on leaving their assets to charitable organizations will benefit less if most of their funds were placed in a Roth IRA.

Because charities are tax-sheltered entities, contributions with after-tax dollars will be lower than contributions from tax-deferred retirement plans such as traditional IRAs or k s.

This is sometimes referred to as a "backdoor Roth IRA.