Messerschmitt Bf 109
Retrieved 10 June
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Wengen Another Alpine village with cute timber chalets. Murren Loop A trail taking in the of the highlights of the region, accessible by foot or cable car, depending on your fitness level. It also employed an electrical pitch regulator, which our planes didn't have. Our propeller system, with variable pitch was hydraulic, making it impossible to change pitch without engine running.
If, God forbid, you turned off the engine at high pitch, it was impossible to turn the propeller and was very hard to start the engine again. Finally, the German ammo counter was also a great thing. Reflecting Messerschmitt's belief in low-weight, low-drag, simple monoplanes, the armament was placed in the fuselage. This kept the wings very thin and light. Two synchronized machine guns were mounted in the cowling, firing over the top of the engine and through the propeller arc.
An alternative arrangement was also designed, consisting of a single autocannon firing through a blast tube between the cylinder banks of the engine, known as a Motorkanone mount in German. When it was discovered in that the RAF was planning eight-gun batteries for its new Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire fighters, it was decided that the Bf should be more heavily armed.
The problem was that the only place available to mount additional guns was in the wings. Only one spot was available in each wing, between the wheel well and slats, with room for only one gun, either a 7. The first version of the to have wing guns was the C-1, which had one MG 17 in each wing.
To avoid redesigning the wing to accommodate large ammunition boxes and access hatches, an unusual ammunition feed was devised whereby a continuous belt holding rounds was fed along chutes out to the wing tip, around a roller and then back along the wing, forward and beneath the gun breech, to the wing root, where it coursed around another roller and back to the weapon.
The gun barrel was placed in a long, large-diameter tube located between the spar and the leading edge. The tube channeled cooling air around the barrel and breech, exhausting out of a slot at the rear of the wing. The installation was so cramped that parts of the MG 17's breech mechanism extended into an opening created in the flap structure.
The much longer and heavier MG FF had to be mounted farther along the wing in an outer bay. A large hole was cut through the spar allowing the cannon to be fitted with the ammunition feed forward of the spar, while the breech block projected rearward through the spar. A round ammunition drum was placed in a space closer to the wing root causing a bulge in the underside.
A small hatch was incorporated in the bulge to allow access for changing the drum. The entire weapon could be removed for servicing by removing a leading edge panel. From the F-series onwards, guns were no longer carried inside the wings.
The change was disliked by leading fighter pilots such as Adolf Galland and Walter Oesau , but others such as Werner Mölders considered the single nose-mounted gun to compensate well for the loss of the two wing guns.
Although the additional armament increased the fighter's potency as a bomber destroyer, it had an adverse effect on the handling qualities, reducing its performance in fighter-versus-fighter combat and accentuating the tendency of the fighter to swing pendulum-fashion in flight. All Messerschmitt aircraft that originated after that date, such as the Me , were to carry the "Me" designation. Despite regulations by the RLM, wartime documents from Messerschmitt AG, RLM and Luftwaffe loss and strength reports continued to use both designations, sometimes even on the same page.
All extant airframes bear the official  "Bf " designation on their identification plates, including the final K-4 models. The aircraft was often nicknamed Messer by its operators and opponents alike; the name was not only an abbreviation of the manufacturer, but also the German word for "knife". The names "Anton", "Berta", "Caesar", "Dora", "Emil", "Friedrich", "Gustav", and "Kurfürst" were derived from the variant's official letter designation e.
In July , not long after the public debut of the new fighter, three Bf Bs took part in the Flugmeeting airshow in Zürich under the command of Major Seidemann. They won in several categories: Heinkel , having had the He rejected in the design competition of , designed and built the He On 30 March , test pilot Hans Dieterle surpassed that record, reaching Messerschmitt, however, soon regained the lead when, on 26 April , Flugkapitän Fritz Wendel , flying the Me V1 , set a new record of For propaganda purposes, the machine was called the Me R, suggesting it was just another variant of the standard fighter, but in fact it was a racing aircraft having little in common with the Bf When the Bf was designed in , by a team led by Willy Messerschmitt and Robert Lusser ,  its primary role was that of a high-speed, short range interceptor.
The remained in production from through in many different variants and sub-variants. The most-produced Bf model was the G series more than a third of all s built were the G-6 series, 12, units being manufactured from March until the end of the war.
A few prototypes of these early aircraft were converted to use the more powerful DB The first major redesign came with the E series , including the naval variant, the Bf T T standing for Träger , or carrier. The Bf E, or "Emil", introduced structural changes to accommodate the heavier, but significantly more powerful 1, PS 1, HP Daimler-Benz DB engine, heavier armament, and increased fuel capacity.
The second major redesign during —40 gave birth to the F series. The F-type also omitted the earlier stabilizer lift strut on either side of the tail. The F-subtype's improved aerodynamic configuration was used by all subsequent variants. Some Bf Fs were used late in the Battle of Britain in , but the variant came into common use only in the first half of The G series , or "Gustav", was introduced in mid Odd-numbered variants were built as high-altitude fighters with a pressurized cockpit and GM-1 boost, while even-numbered variants were not pressurized, air superiority fighters, and fighter-bombers.
Long-range photo-reconnaissance variants also existed. Field kits known as Rüstsätze were also available for the G-series, but those did not change the aircraft designation. By early , tactical requirements resulted in the addition of MW water injection boost and high-performance superchargers , boosting engine output to 1,—2, PS 1,, HP.
From early , some G-2s, G-3s, G-4s, and G-6s were converted to two-seat trainers, known as Gs. An instructor's cockpit was added behind the original cockpit and both were covered by an elongated, glazed canopy. Though externally akin to the late production Bf G series, a large number of internal changes and aerodynamic improvements was incorporated that improved its effectiveness and remedied existing flaws, keeping it competitive with the latest Allied and Soviet fighters.
Total Bf production was 33, units;  Wartime production September to May was 30, units. In January , as part of an effort to increase fighter production, Messerschmitt licensed an SS-owned company, DEST , to manufacture Bf parts at Flossenbürg concentration camp using the expertise of Messerschmitt engineers and the labor of inmates.
Because the prisoners were not paid, the enterprise was highly profitable for both Messerschmitt and the SS. Many died while performing this hazardous duty. Some Bf G derivatives were manufactured postwar under licence as Czechoslovak-built Avia S and Ss, with the production ending in New-production Messerschmitt Bf fighters, — By September , the Bf had become the main fighter of the Luftwaffe, replacing the biplane fighters, and was instrumental in gaining air superiority for the Wehrmacht during the early stages of the war.
During the Battle of Britain , it was pressed into the role of escort fighter, a role for which it was not originally designed, and it was widely employed as a fighter-bomber , as well as a photo-reconnaissance platform. Despite mixed results over Britain, with the introduction of the improved Bf F in early , the type again proved to be an effective fighter during the Invasion of Yugoslavia where it was used by both sides , the Battle of Crete , Operation Barbarossa , the invasion of the USSR , and the Siege of Malta.
In , it began to be partially replaced in Western Europe by a new German fighter, the Focke-Wulf Fw , but it continued to serve in a multitude of roles on the Eastern Front and in the Defense of the Reich , as well as in the Mediterranean Theatre of Operations and with Erwin Rommel 's Afrikakorps. The Soviets lost 21, aircraft at this time, about half to combat. Later in the war, when Allied victories began to bring the fight closer, and then to German territory, bombing raids supplied plenty of targets for the Luftwaffe.
This unique combination of events — until a major change in American fighter tactics occurred very early in , that steadily gave the USAAF daylight air supremacy over the Reich — led to the highest-ever individual pilot victory scores.
Altogether, this group of pilots was credited with a total of nearly 15, kills. Bf s remained in foreign service for many years after World War II.
The Swiss used their Bf Gs well into the s. Romania used its Bf s until The Spanish Hispanos flew even longer. Some were still in service in the late s. They appeared in films notably Battle of Britain playing the role of Bf Es. Some Hispano airframes were sold to museums, which rebuilt them as Bf s. Note, this list includes operators who used Bf s for active service or combat. It does not include the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, which all operated small numbers of captured aircraft for testing and evaluation see: Messerschmitt Bf operational history Allied Bf s.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. RLM aircraft designation system. Messerschmitt Bf variants. Messerschmitt Bf operational history. List of surviving Messerschmitt Bf s. British reports on captured DB series engines describe "a double-walled cannon tube housing" as part of the crankcase. There have been two re-recordings of the original German version of the song that have been released by Nena: Nena ,  and a retro version in ,  which included some verses in French. Live recordings of the song are included on all seven of Nena's live albums, dating from to A special edit that combined the English and German versions of the song was played on American Top 40 with Casey Kasem for the week of 24 March Program American and Australian audiences preferred the original German version, which became a very successful non-English-language song, topping charts in both countries, reaching No.
VH1 Classic , an American cable television station, ran a charity event for Hurricane Katrina relief in Viewers who made donations were allowed to choose which music videos the station would play. The station broadcast the videos as requested from 2: In his book Music: The promotional video, which was originally made for the Dutch music programme TopPop and broadcast on 13 March , was shot in a Dutch military training camp, the band performing the song on a stage in front of a backdrop of fires and explosions provided by the Dutch Army.
Towards the end of the video, the band are seen taking cover and abandoning the stage, which was unplanned and genuine since they believed the explosive blasts were getting out of control. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Neun und neunzig luftballons. Stanislav Petrov , a Soviet early-warning system operator who in disregarded a false nuclear attack alarm from shining clouds, rather than balloons and may have prevented a nuclear war.
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