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A trading room gathers traders operating on financial markets. The trading room is also often called the front office. The terms

Currently, there are two small problems with the JMS download: It really depends on the local laws.

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Revenue in the holiday quarter will be $84 billion, or a 5% decline year over year.

Market risk conducts review of sales and trading activities utilizing the VaR model and provide hedge-fund solutions to portfolio managers. Other risk groups include country risk, operational risk, and counterparty risks which may or may not exist on a bank to bank basis.

Credit risk solutions are key part of capital market transactions, involving debt structuring, exit financing, loan amendment, project finance , leveraged buy-outs, and sometimes portfolio hedging.

Front office market risk activities provide service to investors via derivative solutions, portfolio management, portfolio consulting, and risk advisory. Well-known risk groups in JPMorgan Chase, Morgan Stanley, Goldman Sachs and Barclays engage in revenue-generating activities involving debt structuring, restructuring, syndicated loans, and securitization for clients such as corporates, governments, and hedge funds.

Morgan's Blythe Masters during the s. The Loan Risk Solutions group [12] within Barclays' investment banking division and Risk Management and Financing group [13] housed in Goldman Sach's securities division are client-driven franchises. However, risk management groups such as operational risk, internal risk control, and legal risk are restrained to internal business functions including firm balance-sheet risk analysis and assigning trading cap that are independent of client needs, even though these groups may be responsible for deal approval that directly affects capital market activities.

Risk management is a broad area, and like research, its roles can be client-facing or internal. This area of the bank includes treasury management, internal controls, and internal corporate strategy. Corporate treasury is responsible for an investment bank's funding, capital structure management, and liquidity risk monitoring. Internal control tracks and analyzes the capital flows of the firm, the finance division is the principal adviser to senior management on essential areas such as controlling the firm's global risk exposure and the profitability and structure of the firm's various businesses via dedicated trading desk product control teams.

In the United States and United Kingdom, a comptroller or financial controller is a senior position, often reporting to the chief financial officer.

Internal corporate strategy tackling firm management and profit strategy, unlike corporate strategy groups that advise clients, is non-revenue regenerating yet a key functional role within investment banks.

This list is not a comprehensive summary of all middle-office functions within an investment bank, as specific desks within front and back offices may participate in internal functions.

The back office data-checks trades that have been conducted, ensuring that they are not wrong, and transacts the required transfers. Many banks have outsourced operations. It is, however, a critical part of the bank. Every major investment bank has considerable amounts of in-house software , created by the technology team, who are also responsible for technical support. Technology has changed considerably in the last few years as more sales and trading desks are using electronic trading.

Some trades are initiated by complex algorithms for hedging purposes. Firms are responsible for compliance with local and foreign government regulations and internal regulations.

There are various trade associations throughout the world which represent the industry in lobbying , facilitate industry standards, and publish statistics. In the securities industry in China particularly mainland China , the Securities Association of China is a self-regulatory organization whose members are largely investment banks.

Several of the world's largest investment banks and their investment managers are headquartered in New York and are also important participants in other financial centers.

Revenues have been affected by the introduction of new products with higher margins ; however, these innovations are often copied quickly by competing banks, pushing down trading margins. For example, brokerages commissions for bond and equity trading is a commodity business but structuring and trading derivatives has higher margins because each over-the-counter contract has to be uniquely structured and could involve complex pay-off and risk profiles.

Such transactions are privately negotiated between companies and accredited investors. Banks also earned revenue by securitizing debt, particularly mortgage debt prior to the financial crisis. Investment banks have become concerned that lenders are securitizing in-house, driving the investment banks to pursue vertical integration by becoming lenders, which is allowed in the United States since the repeal of the Glass—Steagall Act in According to the Financial Times , in terms of total advisory fees for the whole of , the top ten investment banks were: Mergers and acquisitions and capital markets are also often covered by The Wall Street Journal and Bloomberg.

The financial credit crisis led to the collapse of several notable investment banks, such as the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers one of the largest investment banks in the world and the hurried sale of Merrill Lynch and the much smaller Bear Stearns to much larger banks, which effectively rescued them from bankruptcy.

The entire financial services industry, including numerous investment banks, was rescued by government loans through the Troubled Asset Relief Program TARP. The crisis led to questioning of the business model of the investment bank [32] without the regulation imposed on it by Glass—Steagall. After deregulation, those standards were gone, but small investors did not grasp the full impact of the change.

A number of former Goldman Sachs top executives, such as Henry Paulson and Ed Liddy were in high-level positions in government and oversaw the controversial taxpayer-funded bank bailout. The investment banking industry, and many individual investment banks, have come under criticism for a variety of reasons, including perceived conflicts of interest, overly large pay packages, cartel-like or oligopolic behavior, taking both sides in transactions, and more.

Conflicts of interest may arise between different parts of a bank, creating the potential for market manipulation , according to critics. Authorities that regulate investment banking, such as the Financial Conduct Authority FCA in the United Kingdom and the SEC in the United States, require that banks impose a "Chinese wall" to prevent communication between investment banking on one side and equity research and trading on the other.

However, critics say such a barrier does not always exist in practice. Independent advisory firms that exclusively provide corporate finance advice argue that their advice is not conflicted, unlike bulge bracket banks. Conflicts of interest often arise in relation to investment banks' equity research units, which have long been part of the industry.

A common practice is for equity analysts to initiate coverage of a company in order to develop relationships that lead to highly profitable investment banking business. In the s, many equity researchers allegedly traded positive stock ratings for investment banking business. Alternatively, companies may threaten to divert investment banking business to competitors unless their stock was rated favorably. Laws were passed to criminalize such acts, and increased pressure from regulators and a series of lawsuits, settlements, and prosecutions curbed this business to a large extent following the stock market tumble after the dot-com bubble.

Philip Augar , author of The Greed Merchants , said in an interview that, "You cannot simultaneously serve the interest of issuer clients and investing clients. Many investment banks also own retail brokerages. During the s, some retail brokerages sold consumers securities which did not meet their stated risk profile. This behavior may have led to investment banking business or even sales of surplus shares during a public offering to keep public perception of the stock favorable.

Imagine the fuss and hassle involved with having to first buy one currency, and then if it moves in the direction you want it to then finding somewhere to sell that currency to and then buy the other one! Those days are long gone now and you really are going to be amazed at all of the next generation of Forex Brokers listed and fully reviewed throughout this website!

The respective financial authorities of every countries provide licences under which forex brokers are allowed to operate and offer their services to citizens of that particular country. Can a forex broker based in one country, offer services to residents of other countries?

Some countries would require a broker to obtain a licence, others will allow them to operate under a licence issued elsewhere. It really depends on the local laws. Do forex brokers offer other forms of trading? Many forex brokers also offer contract-for- difference CFD , commodities, as well as stocks and indices and it is possible for traders to use one account for all of them.

They are usually open the whole time, but when it comes to trading, it is offered Monday through Friday. The starting hour on Monday and the closing hour on Friday depends on the pair in question. Is there a deposit limit? Most forex brokers have a deposit limit.

Are forex brokers safe? Are customers allowed to open more than one trading account with the same broker? Some forex brokers allow their customers to open multiple trading accounts, but they are advised to use the same personal details for each of them.

Are customers required to verify their identity? Most forex brokers would require you to present a Proof of Identity and a Proof Residency, so they can confirm that you are who you claim to be and that you are legally allowed to trade forex. Can a customer have multiple trading accounts with multiple brokers? Yes, there are no legal limits on the number of forex trading accounts that may be opened in your name.

As long as you are legally allowed to have one account, you are also able to have as many as you want. Top 10 Forex Brokers and Trading Platforms to trade online Forex is a portmanteau word consisted of the words foreign exchange and forex trading signifies the trading of currencies.

Broker Offer Devices Review 1 st. How are online forex brokers regulated? Close Window Loading, Please Wait! This may take a second or two. However , several customers have reported problems with the TXF files downloaded from the Scottrade website. Just follow the steps below: Specify the time frame e.

Just above the transactions records there is a link called "view details". Click on it to get the transaction details like dates and wash sales. Then, at the right side of the "Go", press "Export to Excel". CSV file to your computer. Sign into your account. Select "View Your Portfolio" 3. Select the Timeframe should already be set at Previous Year 7. Save the Excel file to your computer That's it! Smith Barney Getting your data out of your Smith Barney account is very straightforward.

Login to your account and follow the steps below: Under Portfolio Menu option, click on Account Download. That will take you to Download Manager web page. Using the drop-down box next to your account number, select the appropriate account view and click the "Download Data" button. A few customers have reported that they were able to get an Excel file with their trades by contacting SogoTrade directly and requesting it.

That will save you the hassle of following the steps listed below. Getting your data out of your Sogotrade or SogoElite account is a little bit of a pain, but it shouldn't take too long. Just follow the steps below, and if you run into any problems, just send me an email: Click on the "Statements" option under the "Account" menu button. Edit the "from" and "to" month and year dropdown fields to get the range of monthly statements that you need.

Clicking on the link for a monthly statement will open a PDF file that you can save to your computer. Unfortunately, you'll need to save each of the twelve statements for the year. There are two ways to do this: If you have access to Adobe Acrobat Pro not Acrobat Reader , you can highlight the table, right-click, and select "copy as table". Then paste into an Excel worksheet. Then open the Word files, select and copy the "Account Activity" table, and paste into an Excel worksheet.

Using either of the above options should get you a reasonably well formatted Excel file, but you may need to do some editing in Excel before proceeding. I particular, you'll want to join the data from your twelve statements into a single Excel worksheet. Also, some of the rows may get a little messed up and will need to be fixed up i. Ameritrade for now provides its customers with free access to Gainskeeper, which should work seamlessly with TaxCut and TurboTax.

Here are the steps for generating a. Select the date range e. When the report comes up, click on the prompt to download data. Choose the CSV download format. If you get a message which states "May contain features that are not compatible with CSV comma delineated.

Do you want to keep the workbook in this format? Goto "My Accounts" and then "Other Info" 2. Select "Taxes" and then "Generate Tax Worksheet".

Pick the desired date range. Download and save the CSV file. TradeKing Getting your data out of TradeKing is very straightforward. Click the checkbox for "Excel" under "Choose Format". TradeStation First, login to your account and follow the steps below: Select the date range you want.

Only 3 months can be selected at a time. You will have to download 4 quarters and then combine them to a single file via copying and pasting. Under "Security type" select either "All". Under "Transaction type" select "All". Under file type select "Excel" from the drop down menu 7. Click "Download" and then "Save to disk" and then "OK".

Unfortunately, TradeStation only offers a download of individual buy and sell transactions, but what you need are the combined transactions, where the buy and sell orders have been matched up. Click on any of your account numbers. In the upper boxes, click "Statement and Reports" 3.

Click "Download" on the far left 4. Under "Step 2" select "Accounts" and click any of your Accounts 6. Under "Step 3" select "Timeframe" and choose the desired tax year. Under "Step 4" select "Download". Unfortunately, UBS only offers a download of individual buy and sell transactions, but what you need are the combined transactions, where the buy and sell orders have been matched up. Wachovia First, login to your account and follow the steps below: Select "Account Downloads" from under "Account Services" on the left margin.

Select the "Excel" tab, then choose the following options: Click on "Download to Excel" and save the. XLS file That's it! Wachovia separates stocks and options, so if you have both, you'll need to run ConvertExcel2TXF separately on each section. Then just import both TXF files into your tax software.

Zecco First, login to your account and follow the steps below: Click on "Account Records". Click on "Trade Activity". Specify the dates of interest.